PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ANALYSES OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACTS ON SOME CLINICAL ISOLATES
Garlic (allium Sativum L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale), were chosen to examine their effects on selected bacterial isolates. In the present study, their extracts were made using distilled water and ethanol as extractive solvent and the extracts were tested for their antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The antibacterial effects of various garlic and ginger extracts were evaluated using various standard methods .The extracted aqueous and ethanol extracts were applied to the bacterial isolates through the agar diffusion method. The diameter for zone of inhibition for aqueous extract of garlic ranged from 10.10±0.01 to 25.10±0.03 mm for the various concentrations used. The diameter for zone of inhibition for ethanol extract of garlic ranged from 11.00±0.01 to 28.11±0.01 mm for the various concentrations. Maximum inhibitory effect for aqueous extract of garlic was towards Klebsiella pneumonia, while that of ethanol was towards Staphylococccus aureus. The diameter of zone of inhibition for aqueous extract of ginger ranged from 5.00±0.01 to 18.01±0.03 mm for the various concentrations used. The diameter of zone of inhibition for ethanol extract of ginger ranged from 5.03±0.01 to 24.01±0.20 mm for the various concentrations used. Maximum inhibitory effect for aqueous extract of ginger was towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while that of ethanol was towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of this present study has shown that test bacteria were susceptible to crude extracts of garlic and ginger in vitro which means the plants extracts possess antibacterial properties. It is recommended that further research can be done towards isolating, purifying and standardizing the active antibacterial ingredients in both plant materials.